Paw-sitively Painful: A Complete Guide to Sore Hocks in Rabbits

As a rabbit owner, you want your furry friend to be healthy and happy. However, sometimes health problems can arise, including sore hocks, which can be painful for your rabbit and even lead to infections if left untreated.

Sore hocks, also known as pododermatitis or bumblefoot, is a condition that affects a rabbit's feet, specifically the hocks, which are the back part of the foot that touches the ground when the rabbit hops. It can also affect the front feet as well but less commonly. Sore hocks occur when the skin on the bottom of the hocks becomes inflamed, thickened, or even ulcerated due to prolonged pressure or friction on a hard surface.

While sore hocks are a common problem in rabbits, they can be prevented and treated with proper care and attention. As a responsible rabbit owner, it's important to understand the causes and symptoms of sore hocks and how to provide the necessary care to keep your bunny's feet healthy and pain-free.

In this blog post, we'll provide a comprehensive guide to sore hocks in rabbits, including tips for prevention, recognizing symptoms, and effective treatments. By following these guidelines and taking proactive measures to care for your rabbit's feet, you can help ensure a happy and healthy life for your furry friend.

Difference Between Calluses & Sore Hocks

It's important to differentiate between normal calluses and sore hocks in rabbits, as they can appear similar but have different underlying causes and treatments.

Typically, it is natural for rabbits to have calluses (bald spots) on the bony protrusions of their hocks, which are subjected to the most pressure, and the fur surrounding the area grows sideways, covering them. These spots lack fur growth entirely. When the hair around the area becomes worn or shortened, the bald spots become more noticeable. You may notice that the skin in these areas appears dry and flaky, with a light to medium pink color. They are generally considered a cosmetic issue and not a medical one.

Sore hocks, on the other hand, are inflamed or infected areas of skin that develop on the hocks due to prolonged pressure, friction, or moisture. Sore hocks can be painful for rabbits and can lead to further complications if left untreated, such as infection or abscesses. Sore hocks are generally considered a medical issue and require veterinary attention to prevent or treat.

In much the same way that guitar players develop calluses on their fingertips for protection, rabbits may develop calluses on their hocks that serve a similar purpose. These calluses can actually be beneficial to the rabbit, as they provide a layer of defense against further tissue damage. If the calluses are not causing any inflammation or ulcers, it may be best to simply leave them be and keep an eye on them for any signs of future irritation.

If you are unsure whether your rabbit has calluses or sore hocks, it's best to consult with a veterinarian who can provide a diagnosis and recommend appropriate treatment.

Causes of Sore Hocks in Rabbits

There are several factors that can contribute to the development of sore hocks in rabbits. Understanding these causes can help you take steps to prevent the condition from occurring in the first place.

“An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.”


Some breeds of rabbits are more prone to sore hocks than others. This is due to differences in bone structure and foot shape, which can increase the pressure on the hocks when the rabbit hops. Rabbits with finer fur, such as Rex rabbits, may be more susceptible to developing sore hocks as their fur is not as durable and may not provide as much protection against friction. This makes these breeds more vulnerable to sore hock problems. Large breeds, like Flemish Giants and Angoras, and pregnant rabbits are also prone to sore hocks.


An imbalanced or low-quality diet can lead to weight gain and obesity. A rabbit with too much weight on their body will often not be able to stand correctly, and may put unnatural pressure on points of the feet that are not meant to support much weight. Make sure your rabbit is on a proper diet (do not change diet without discussing with your vet first) and gets regular exercise.

Long Nails

In rabbits with long nails the weight falls on the back of the foot resulting in sore hocks. This is one of the main culprits that is very easy to avoid! Nail trims must occur on a regular basis: every 4-8 weeks!

Insufficient/Thin Fur on Feet

Any cause of fur loss on the soles of the feet (e.g. mange, friction from improper flooring, contact allergies, etc.) will deprive the rabbit of the natural fur layer she needs to protect her feet. Rabbits have no fat padding on the bottoms of their feet like cats and dogs; they rely almost exclusively on a thick pad of fur to protect them from impact and friction.

NOTE: Rex breeds’ GUARD hair - which is normally longer and covers the undercoat - is the SAME LENGTH as the under coat so there is no protection from it. The guard hairs are still there but you can’t feel them separately because it is mixed in with the undercoat. This is why Rex’s are so prone to sore hocks.

A rex rabbit with severe loss of fur on the back hocks resulting in sore hocks. Note there is also some red sores on the front paws as well. Genitals blurred out for modesty. :)


Rabbits need soft, preferably malleable flooring that will mimic the natural texture of the earth as much as possible. While you may think slippery flooring is the main culprit, it’s most often abrasive/irritating flooring that can lead to sore hocks such as low pile and abrasive rugs/carpets, jute rugs, and flooring that is wet from urine or feces. Other factors that can contribute:

  • Wire flooring that doesn’t have sufficient support underneath is not appropriate, as it can cause the foot to bow unnaturally.
  • Wood, tile, linoleum, other slippery flooring doesn’t allow the foot to bend the way it does when it’s pushing off against earth or grass; slippery flooring is OK as long as you have areas of traction in between.
  • Cages with slick plastic bottoms are especially bad for a bunny’s feet and joints (one of the many reasons we never recommend housing in cages).

Ideal Flooring

Rugs/blankets/pads should be a smooth, non-abrasive fabric. They should be plush or covering a padded flooring like rubber mats.

Note on fleece: soft fleece blankets are often put over rugs, carpets, rubber/yoga mats, etc. however because of its synthetic fibers fleece can also be just as abrasive as carpet and is not recommended as the main flooring for pets with sore hocks. Waterproof bed pads made of cotton are great to use; they can be washed hundreds of times, provide a white background so you can easily observe urine, stool, and/or blood from sore hocks, and they provide soft traction.

Damp Bedding

Damp bedding in a litter box can contribute to sore hocks in rabbits in a few ways. First, it can soften the skin on the bottom of their feet, making it more vulnerable to injury and irritation. Second, it can promote the growth of bacteria and fungi that can cause infections and exacerbate existing skin issues. Finally, rabbits may spend more time lying down or resting on damp bedding, which can increase the pressure on their feet and lead to the development of sore hocks. It's important to regularly clean and replace the bedding in your rabbit's litter box to help prevent sore hocks and other health issues.

An easy fix is using absorbent paper bedding such as Rabbit Hole Hay's Food Grade Bedding & adding a fresh layer of hay on top daily. While Compressed Pine Pellets are a great natural bedding, they are not recommended for any rabbits with or prone to sore hocks.

You can also purchase a plastic grate (or a pre-made litter box with one) and add it to your litter box; the benefit is that the urine and poop go through the grate and therefore your rabbit is never sitting in wet bedding. It's worth noting that this is not equivalent to keeping rabbits in a cage with a wire bottom, which is not a recommended housing option for them.

The biggest dangers resulting from sore hocks are infection of the skin and the bones of the feet. Rabbits who spend large amounts of time standing in urine or feces soaked bedding or in damp areas from either spilled water or urine are going to be at risk for infection if they get a cut or sore on their foot.

Age, Immobility, & Pain

Age can be a factor that affects the development of sore hocks in rabbits. Older rabbits, especially those with arthritis or other mobility issues, may spend more time lying down or resting, which can increase pressure on their feet and make them more prone to developing sore hocks. Additionally, as rabbits age, their skin may become thinner and less elastic, which can make it more susceptible to injury and irritation. This can make it easier for them to develop sore hocks or make existing sore hocks more difficult to treat. It's important to provide comfortable and supportive living conditions for rabbits of all ages to help prevent the development of sore hocks.

Symptoms of Sore Hocks in Rabbits

Recognizing the symptoms of sore hocks is important for early detection and treatment. Here are some of the signs to look for:

Redness and Inflammation: Sore hocks can cause the skin on the bottom of the hocks to become red, inflamed, and hot to the touch. It’s vital to note that rabbits may naturally have some bald spots on their hocks, and not all bald spots indicate the presence of sore hocks.

Hair Loss: As the condition progresses, the hair on the bottom of the hocks may begin to fall out or become thin. Again, not all hair loss indicates sore hocks: some rabbits may have naturally thinner fur or may groom themselves in a way that causes hair loss on their hocks.

Thickening and Scabs: The skin on the bottom of the hocks may become thicker and rougher as a result of the inflammation and pressure.

Bleeding and Open Sores: In severe cases, the skin may become ulcerated, causing bleeding or open sores that can become infected.

Limping or Reluctance to Move: Sore hocks can be painful, and a rabbit with the condition may limp or avoid putting weight on their feet. They may also be less active or playful than usual.

If you notice any of these symptoms in your rabbit, it's important to take action right away. Left untreated, sore hocks can lead to serious complications, including infections that can spread throughout the body. They also become much more difficult to treat the further along they progress. By recognizing the symptoms and seeking treatment promptly, you can help your rabbit feel better and prevent further damage to their feet.

Prevention of Sore Hocks in Rabbits

Preventing sore hocks in rabbits is all about creating a healthy environment that reduces the risk of pressure, friction, and injury to their feet.

Here are some tips to help prevent sore hocks from developing in your bunny:

Provide Appropriate Flooring & Litter Box Bedding: Soft, comfortable flooring can help reduce pressure on your rabbit's feet. Avoid hard or rough surfaces (such as wire mesh or concrete) and non-abrasive fabrics, which can cause injury and irritation. Use a soft paper bedding in litter boxes.

Clean the Living Space Regularly: Keeping your rabbit's living space clean and dry can help prevent infections that can make sore hocks worse. Remove any wet or soiled bedding promptly, and provide fresh, clean bedding regularly.

Monitor Your Rabbit's Weight: A healthy diet and regular exercise can help prevent obesity, which can increase the pressure on your rabbit's feet. Provide plenty of hay, fresh greens, and a limited amount of pellets to maintain a healthy weight for your bunny.

Give Your Rabbit Plenty of Exercise and Playtime: Regular exercise and playtime can help keep your rabbit's muscles strong and prevent them from becoming sedentary. Provide plenty of toys and opportunities for play, such as tunnels and chew toys.

Check Your Rabbit's Feet Regularly: Regularly checking your rabbit's feet can help you catch sore hocks early, before they become severe. Look for signs of redness, inflammation, and hair loss, and seek veterinary care if you notice any changes.

By taking these preventive measures, you can help ensure that your rabbit's feet stay healthy and pain-free. A little bit of attention and care can go a long way in preventing sore hocks and other health problems in your furry friend.

Treatment of Sore Hocks in Rabbits

If your rabbit has developed sore hocks, there are several treatment options available to help alleviate their pain and promote healing.

Here are some of the most common treatments for sore hocks in rabbits:

Medications: Your veterinarian may prescribe pain relievers or antibiotics to help manage pain and prevent infections. These medications should only be used under the guidance of a veterinarian.

Foot Soaks: Your veterinarian may prescribe various products (Betadine, Nolvasan, Epsom salt) in which you will soak your rabbit’s feet two to three times a day. Betadine and Nolvasan are antibacterial solutions that are available at your local pharmacy.

Topical Treatments: Applying a topical ointment or cream, such as silver sulfadiazine, can help soothe sore hocks and promote healing. Your veterinarian can recommend the best treatment options for your rabbit's specific needs.

Changes in Living Environment: Making changes to your rabbit's living environment can help reduce pressure on their feet and promote healing. This may include providing soft, comfortable flooring and removing rough or hard surfaces.

Bandages, Wraps, & Hock Socks: In severe cases, your veterinarian may recommend using bandages, wraps, or custom-made “Hock Socks” to protect and cushion the affected areas. These should only be used under the guidance of a veterinarian, as they can interfere with healing if not applied properly. This is a wonderful tutorial on making your own special booties with VetWrap.

Surgery: In very severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or repair the affected area. This is typically a last resort, and should only be considered after other treatment options have been exhausted.

When to Seek Veterinary Care

If you suspect that your rabbit may be experiencing sore hocks, it's important to seek veterinary care right away. Sore hocks can be a painful and potentially serious condition, and early intervention can help prevent complications.

You should seek veterinary care if you notice any of the following signs on the bottom of your rabbit's hocks:

  • Redness or inflammation
  • Hair loss or thinning
  • Thickening or calluses
  • Bleeding
  • Limping or reluctance to move

Your veterinarian can perform a physical exam and recommend a treatment plan based on your rabbit's specific needs. They may also recommend changes to your rabbit's living environment or diet to help prevent further damage to their feet.

It's important to follow your veterinarian's recommendations closely and to continue monitoring your rabbit's feet for signs of sore hocks in the future. By taking proactive steps to prevent and treat sore hocks, you can help ensure that your rabbit stays happy, healthy, and pain-free.


Sore hocks are a common and painful condition that can affect rabbits of all ages and breeds. It is crucial to keep in mind that calluses, unlike sore hocks, can be a natural development and do not require treatment. While sore hocks can be challenging to prevent and treat, there are several steps you can take to reduce your rabbit's risk and promote healing if sore hocks do develop.

By providing a clean and comfortable living environment, monitoring your rabbit's weight and diet, and seeking veterinary care at the first sign of trouble, you can help ensure that your furry friend stays healthy and happy. Remember to check your rabbit's feet regularly and to seek veterinary care if you notice any signs of sore hocks, such as redness, hair loss, or inflammation.

With the right care and attention, your rabbit can recover from sore hocks and return to their playful, curious selves. If you have any concerns or questions about your rabbit's health, don't hesitate to consult with your veterinarian. Together, you can help ensure that your rabbit enjoys a long and happy life.