The Kale Myth Busted: Discover Why Kale is a Perfectly Safe and Healthy Choice for Your Pet Rabbit

Reviewed by rabbit expert Lucile Moore, PhD.

When it comes to healthy eating, kale has undeniably earned its status as a superstar in the human world. Packed with vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, this leafy green has found its way into smoothies, salads, and countless trendy recipes. But what about our furry friends? Is kale safe and beneficial for pet rabbits?

Contrary to popular belief, kale has been subjected to some unjustified criticism as a rabbit food. In the past, concerns arose regarding its calcium and oxalate content, leading to the belief that it may be harmful to our rabbit companions. However, as time goes on, we learn more about proper rabbit nutrition, our knowledge evolves, and theories about kale - and whether or not it's healthy for rabbits - have changed.

In this blog post, we'll dive into the subject of kale and pet rabbits, debunking the outdated misconceptions and shedding light on the truth. We'll explore the nutritional benefits that kale brings to the table and provide you with valuable guidelines on how to safely incorporate it into your rabbit's diet.

So, if you've ever wondered whether kale can be a healthy and delicious addition to your rabbit's meals, read on to discover why this leafy superfood is indeed a perfectly safe and nutritious choice for your beloved pet!

Outdated Misconceptions about Kale

One long-standing misconception about kale is that it is harmful to rabbits due to its calcium and oxalate content. These concerns have led some well-meaning rabbit owners to avoid feeding kale altogether...which in our opinion is a shame! Let's talk about what exactly oxalates are and why calcium gets a bad rap.

Calcium & Oxalates

While it's true that kale does contain calcium and oxalates, as do many other foods, the impact of these components on rabbit health is not as dire as once believed. Recent studies have challenged the notion that kale poses a significant risk. Kale has been said to have a high oxalic content (google it right now: you'll see multiple resources saying as much!) but it actually has a very low oxalate content (between 2-17mg per 100g), while other commonly recommended foods for rabbits have much higher oxalate contents like parsley (900mg) and spinach (1,380mg).

The calcium content in kale is indeed high - around 315mg per 100g (compared to say, romaine lettuce which is 23mg per 100g). If a rabbit is prone to bladder sludge, it is sometimes recommended to avoid high-calcium foods, like kale, parsley, spinach, and dandelion greens. That being said, many veterinarians now believe that high calcium levels in the diet may not be the primary cause of urinary sludge, contrary to our previous understanding. According to Lucile Moore:

Although in the past owners of rabbits with “sludge” and/or stones were often told to reduce the calcium in the rabbit’s diet, many veterinary health professionals now recognize that fluid intake and exercise may be more important than the intake of calcium. Some researchers point out that rabbits have adapted to high calcium loads in their urine. In one study rabbits were put on several diets varying in calcium: alfalfa hay only, alfalfa and oats, grass hay only and grass hay and oats. None of the rabbits on any of the diets developed calculi and there was no significant difference in calcium deposits in the kidneys and aorta. The researchers concluded that water supply and exercise were more important factors in the development of urolithiasis than calcium content of the diet. Increased fluid intake reduces the concentration of the urine and keeps the urinary tract flushed out, and exercise helps keep particles from remaining in the bladder.

This is yet another example of information that has developed and shifted over time as we learn more. Ultimately, when fed in moderation and as part of a balanced diet, kale can offer valuable nutritional benefits to our fluffy companions, which we will go into more detail about a little later on.

Spinach has 80x the amount of oxalates compared to kale.


The notion that kale causes gas in rabbits is a topic that has sparked many discussions among rabbit owners. While some rabbits may indeed experience gas or digestive upset after consuming kale, it's important to note that individual reactions can vary with any food item. Equally important to note is that the digestive system of rabbits differs from that of humans, and foods that commonly cause gas in humans may not have the same effect on rabbits. 

Gas can be caused by a variety of factors, including rapid diet changes, overconsumption of certain foods, or an imbalance in the overall diet. While kale does contain some complex sugars that can contribute to gas formation in humans, when fed in moderation and as part of a balanced diet, kale is unlikely to be a significant cause of gas in rabbits.

For many years we personally have fed kale to our rabbits daily and they have never had an adverse reaction. However, it's crucial to monitor your rabbit's individual response and adjust their diet accordingly. If you notice excessive gas or digestive issues after feeding kale, it may be best to reduce or remove it from their diet. Keep in mind that sensitivities to certain foods may change with age as well. Your spry, young rabbit may be able to handle kale while the older, slower rabbit may not be able to handle the same foods he once did.

Embracing the Fluidity of Rabbit Nutrition: Staying Informed and Adapting to New Insights

As I've already mentioned, it's crucial to recognize that our understanding of rabbit nutrition is a constantly evolving field. As new research emerges and experts gain further insights, we must be open to updating our knowledge and adjusting our practices accordingly. What may have been considered an absolute truth in the past can be reevaluated with new information.

By staying informed and relying on the latest research and professional advice, we can ensure that our rabbits receive the best possible care and nutrition. So, let's move beyond the outdated misconceptions about kale and explore its true value as a safe and healthy option for our furry friends.

Nutritional Benefits of Kale for Rabbits

Kale, often hailed as a superfood for humans, also offers valuable nutritional benefits for our pet rabbits too. Let's take a closer look at why kale deserves a place in their diet:

Fiber Powerhouse

As we all know, rabbits thrive on a high-fiber diet, and kale delivers just that. Many of us think that hay is the only source of fiber but veggies are a wonderful source as well! Kale is rich in dietary fiber, which promotes healthy digestion and helps prevent gastrointestinal issues such as blockages or stasis.

Essential Vitamins

Kale is a nutritional powerhouse, packed with essential vitamins that contribute to your rabbit's health. It is particularly abundant in vitamins A, C, and K. Vitamin A supports proper vision and immune function, while vitamin C acts as an antioxidant, boosting the immune system. Vitamin K plays a crucial role in blood clotting and bone health. Lutein is also abundant in kale. According to Lucile Moore in her book Rabbit Nutrition and Nutritional Healing, "lutein is an antioxidant, has been found to protect against eye damage, may improve cardiovascular health, and has anti-inflammatory properties". Including kale in your rabbit's diet helps ensure they receive a range of essential vitamins for optimal well-being.

Balanced Nutrition

Variety is key when it comes to providing a well-rounded diet for your rabbit. Kale, along with other leafy greens, adds diversity to their meals, offering a broader spectrum of nutrients. By including kale alongside other rabbit-safe vegetables, you provide a balanced nutritional profile, giving your rabbit the best chance at thriving.

Safe Feeding Guidelines

While kale can be a nutritious addition to your rabbit's diet, it's important to follow safe feeding guidelines to ensure their well-being. Here are some essential tips to keep in mind:

Moderation is Key

Like with any new food, it's crucial to introduce kale gradually. Start by offering small amounts and monitor your rabbit's response. Some rabbits may have sensitive stomachs or specific dietary needs, so it's best to observe their digestion and overall health when incorporating kale into their meals.

Portion Control

Kale should be given in moderation, as excessive amounts of any food item can lead to digestive upset or interfere with the balance of nutrients in your rabbit's diet. As a general guideline, a few small leaves of kale, a couple of times per week, is a suitable serving size for most rabbits. As I mentioned before, we feed our rabbits kale almost every day in addition to a mix of other rotating greens and it has never been an issue for our crew! Adjust the portion based on your rabbit's individual needs and consult with a trusted, rabbit-savvy veterinarian if you have any concerns.

Variety and Balance

While kale offers nutritional benefits, it should be part of a diverse and balanced diet. Rabbits require a mix of hay, fresh vegetables, and pellets to meet their dietary needs. Incorporate kale alongside other rabbit-safe greens, such as romaine lettuce, dill, or cilantro, to provide a well-rounded nutritional profile.

Symphony and Delilah enjoy a mix of kale, parsley, dill, romaine, and mint.

Monitor Your Rabbit

As responsible pet owners, it's important to observe your rabbit's well-being and behavior after introducing kale. Watch for any signs of allergies or digestive issues, changes in appetite, or unusual behavior. If you notice any adverse reactions, discontinue feeding kale and consult with a veterinarian.

By following these safe feeding guidelines, you can incorporate kale into your rabbit's diet in a responsible and beneficial way, ensuring their health and happiness.

Preparing Kale for Your Rabbit

Properly preparing kale for your rabbit ensures that they can enjoy it safely and comfortably. Follow these steps to prepare kale for your furry friend:

Select Fresh and Organic Kale

When choosing kale for your rabbit, opt for fresh, organic varieties whenever possible. Organic kale reduces the risk of pesticide exposure, promoting the overall well-being of your pet. Even better, purchase your kale at a local farmer's market or grow your own!

Always discard wilted or spoiled leaves, as they may pose a health risk to your rabbit. A good rule of thumb with fresh greens and vegetables is if you wouldn't eat it, don't feed it to your rabbit!

There are many different varieties of kale: lacinato, curly, ornamental are the most common and all varieties are equally safe and healthy for rabbits.

Thoroughly Wash the Leaves

Before serving kale to your rabbit, it's important to wash the leaves thoroughly. Rinse them under cool running water to remove any dirt, debris, or potential contaminants. This step helps ensure that your rabbit receives clean and safe food. In our home, we like to immediately soak our greens in a vinegar/water solution.

Remove Tough Stems

Kale stems can be tough and challenging for rabbits to chew and digest. To make it easier for them to consume, remove the tough stems by holding the base of the stem with one hand and gently pulling the leaves away with the other. This way, you can provide your rabbit with tender and more easily chewable kale leaves.

Chop or Tear into Bite-Sized Pieces

After removing the tough stems, chop or tear the kale leaves into small, bite-sized pieces. This makes it easier for your rabbit to handle and consume the kale without struggling. Remember, rabbits have small mouths, so smaller pieces are more manageable for them.

Serve and Observe

Place the prepared kale in your rabbit's bowl or scatter it in their feeding area. Observe your rabbit's response. If your rabbit is not accustomed to kale, it may take some time for them to warm up to it. Patience and gradual introduction are key.

Signs of Allergy or Digestive Issues

While kale is generally safe for rabbits, it's important to monitor your furry friend for any signs of allergy or digestive issues. Remember, every rabbit is unique, and individual dietary needs may vary. Just like humans, rabbits are unique individuals with their own dietary preferences and sensitivities. While kale may be well-tolerated by one rabbit, another rabbit may have a completely different response to the same food.

Just because one rabbit may have a negative reaction to kale doesn't necessarily mean that kale is bad in general for all rabbits and it is a huge injustice to such a nutritious, beneficial food to make such a claim. Each rabbit has its own digestive system and nutritional requirements.


It's time to set the record straight: kale is a safe and healthy choice for your pet rabbit. Outdated misconceptions about its suitability for rabbits have been challenged by newer research. As responsible rabbit owners, it's important to stay informed and adapt our knowledge to ensure the best care for our furry friends.

Kale offers numerous nutritional benefits for rabbits. Its high fiber content promotes healthy digestion, while its rich vitamin profile, including vitamins A, C, and K, supports overall health and well-being. When incorporated into a varied and balanced diet, kale contributes to the nutritional needs of your rabbit, providing them with a range of essential nutrients.

Remember to follow safe feeding guidelines, including introducing kale gradually, practicing portion control, and offering a diverse selection of vegetables. Additionally, ensure the freshness and quality of the kale by selecting organic varieties and washing the leaves thoroughly.

While kale is generally safe, it's important to monitor your rabbit for any signs of allergy or digestive issues. Watch for changes in stool consistency, appetite, behavior, and any allergic reactions. If you have any concerns, consult a veterinarian who specializes in rabbit care to address them promptly.

Go ahead and offer your fluffy companion kale with confidence, knowing that you're providing them with a safe and healthy green that adds nutritional value to their diet. Your rabbit will surely appreciate the leafy treat and thrive with your loving care.

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